Developing Thailand’s National Adaptation Plan - Introduction and Principle

3.1

ที่มาและความสำคัญ

ที่มาและความสำคัญ

3.2

วัตถุประสงค์

วัตถุประสงค์

3.1

หลักการจัดทําแผน
การปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศแห่งชาติ

 หลักการจัดทําแผนการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศแห่งชาติ 

3.2

แนวคิดและกระบวนการ
จัดทําแผนการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศแห่งชาติ

แนวคิดและกระบวนการจัดทําแผนการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงม สภาพภูมิอากาศแห่งชาติ

3.1

Introduction

Background and Rational, Objectives, Principles for national climate change adaptation plan (NAP) development, and the Concept and Process for NAP development

3.2

Objectives

To be a framework and a guideline for integration Budget allocation To lay the foundation and develop the guidelines And raising awareness of the importance of climate change problems

3.3

Guiding Principles of the National Adaptation Plan

Guiding Principles of the National Adaptation Plan

3.4

Conceptual Framework and Preparation Process of Thailand’s NAP

Conceptual Framework and Preparation Process of Thailand’s NAP

3.1.1
The Climate Risk Index developed by analyses to what extent countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (1997-2016). Thailand was identified in the 10 most affected countries by climate change. For the past 20 years, Thailand has been affected by climate-related natural disasters up to 137 times. 2011, in particular, saw the great flood disaster which accounted for 87 percent of all the damage that has occurred. The World Bank has assessed the damage as high as 1.44 trillion baht. In 2018, Thailand was ranked 9th in the most affected countries on the Climate Risk Index. From the average temperature that tends to increase continuously, and changes in rainfall resulting in natural disasters related to the climate, such as floods, droughts and more severe storms, these effects are causing damage to economic sectors such as agriculture, tourism, industry etc. including water management, urban development, population migration, of biodiversity and the spread of diseases. The AR5 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability report from the IPCC stated that South-East Asia is a region that is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Considering the economy and the number of deaths due to climate-related natural disasters, Thailand was the most affected country in the world in 2011 with an area of 65 out of 77 provinces of Thailand faced with a severe flood that killed about 900 people including affecting around 13.6 million people and damaging agricultural areas of more than 20,000 square kilometres.

To tackle climate change issues, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP), by the Climate Change Management and Coordination Division, is Thailand’s national focal point to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It has created Thailand’s Climate Change Master Plan 2015 – 2050, a 36-year long-term plan as a policy framework to climate change resilience and sustainable low carbon growth by 2050. It consists of 3 main strategies:

  1. Adaptation to the effects of climate change
  2. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and increase of greenhouse gas sinks and;
  3. Capacity building for climate change management. (download) Regarding operations with a concrete framework to climate change adaptation, in 2015, ONEP conducted a study project to draft the National Adaptation Plan. The first phase was the study of risk and vulnerability assessment by area, province, and sector, together with creating a risk and vulnerability map, and a database on climate change in Thailand. In 2016, ONEP conducted the 2nd phase of study by collecting and creating a database of knowledge and best practices on climate change adaptation in Thailand from the local level to the national level as well as to utilize the results of the 1st phase study that has analysed weaknesses, gaps and needs to formulate the NAP. The NAP formulation process passed the public hearing and suggestions from the working group on academic supervision of the project, experts and all relevant parties, including the public, private and government sectors at the regional level (north, northeast, central, eastern and southern) and the national level. However, in order to formulate NAP comprehensively, an appropriate decision for the changing situation in 2018, ONEP has reviewed and drafted a NAP in accordance with international cooperation and national policies such as the Paris Agreement, the National Strategy and the National Reform Plan etc
3.1.2

Objectives

  1. To serve as the framework and guideline for related agencies to be able to integrate climate change adaptation into sector plans and strategies for each area, accurately and appropriately;
  2. To be the framework for budget allocation to effectively turn climate change adaptation policies into concrete actions, in line with the country’s visions on sustainable development, and with related international actions;
  3. To provide building blocks for the development of climate resilience and adaptive capacities in all sectors, as well as to enhance participation in mainstreaming climate change adaptation principles and measures into all sectors and at all levels;
  4. To create awareness of the significance of climate change issues and a common understanding among government agencies, and other related parties including the business sector and the general public, for concerted climate change adaptation actions.
3.1.3

Guiding Principles of the National Adaptation Plan

Thailand’s NAP was developed with the consideration of the national context and circumstances, using the following guiding principles follows:

  1. Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy – The Initiative by The King Rama 9
    Philosophy of the sufficiency economy is the way of life of people in creating immunity and stability of life in the midst of global economic changes and domestic changes. The philosophy can be adapted for climate change adaptation based on Thai culture and can be applied to all levels and consistent with the risk management to adapt to climate change in order to achieve sustainable development. It can be used in agriculture and food security, water management, natural resources and environmental conservation, and settlement interchangeably.
  2. Thai wisdom and Local Wisdom
    Thai wisdom is beneficial to climate change adaptation in agriculture, nutrition, medicine, natural resources and environmental management. Thai wisdom has variety and is suited to the conditions of each area. Further development of Thai wisdom and local knowledge of climate change adaptation can be implemented by taking lessons and knowledge that affect success at the local level and integrated with modern technology to increase the potential and scope of operations to expand the results of operations and applications in areas with similar characteristics and contexts, to expand success in local areas to regional, national and the international level.
  3. Sustainable Development
    Sustainable Development is a principle that gives importance to the balance of economy, society and environmental development by expanding the effectiveness of economic development and considering the limits of natural resources. At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015, 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs )were set by combining urgent action to combat climate change as SDG goal number 13 and establishing a sustainable development agenda to achieve that goal by 2030.
  4. Ecosystem-based Adaptation หรือ EbA
    Ecosystem-based Adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services to increase capacity to cope and adapt to the impact of climate change, focusing on the use of green structures, conservation and restoring measures or managing sustainable ecosystems and natural resources, such as integrated watershed management, forest management, economics motivation of maintaining ecosystem by Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) etc.
  5. Community-based Adaptation: CbA
    Community-based Adaptation focuses on strengthening the capacity of local communities to cope with and reduce vulnerability to climate change by integrating with local sustainable development objectives or creating and implementing adaptive approaches that rely on community involvement, priority to local knowledge and simply community technology which is a local wisdom that is suitable for the area and situation.
  6. Precautionary principle and Proactive approach
    Precautionary principle and the Proactive approach are a management on the prevention of pre-effects by creating a prevention system for natural resources and the environment, especially fragile ecosystems and vulnerable areas which endanger human health, economy, society and the environment
  7. Resource efficiency
    Resource efficiency is the principle of reducing the rate of resource utilization per economic activity unit by increasing the efficiency of use and reducing the overall negative externalities from economic activities by applying the appropriate economic tools using the Polluters Pay Principle: PPP or the Beneficiaries Pay Principle: BPP.
  8. Good governance and public participation
    Good governance is the good management principle which government, private entities and individual people can apply to cooperate in the management of natural resources. Good governance has 6 elements:
    • The Rule of Law
    • Morality
    • Accountability
    • Participation
    • Responsibility
    • Cost–effectiveness or Economical
  9. Human rights and Gender responsiveness
    Consideration of rights and basic freedom of humanity and gender considerations related to climate change adaptation is part of government’s role in preserving basic living conditions especially for the most vulnerable population to climate threats, extreme weather or migration due to climate change. These include low-income people, children, the elderly, the disabled or sick people. Human rights and gender considerations are important in the implementation of climate change adaptation
3.1.4

Conceptual Framework and Preparation Process of Thailand’s NAP

The NAP’s conceptual framework is based on climate change risks and vulnerability management. Therefore, preparation for coping with each system and various sectors must use risk management as a basis. The vulnerability can be summarized in the form of a relationship between risk and adaptability. It can be assumed that the vulnerability of climate change in different systems or regions depends on the ratio of risk and adaptive capacity.
The concept of risk management to reduces vulnerability of systems or sectors, such as reducing or avoiding exposure to climate risk. Reducing climate sensitivity and increasing system or sector capacity to cope with risk is an important basis to determine the guideline and measure for the national climate change adaptation plan and it is necessary to integrate climate change issues into policies and plans.

The National Climate Change Adaptation Plan is a framework for adaptation to climate change of the country in order to reduce vulnerability, create adaptive capacity in line with sustainable development of economic, social and environment domains. These focus on the final outcomes of long-term operations of all 6 main sectors (Figure 1-1), which are (1) Water management (2) agriculture and food security (3) tourism (4) public health (5) natural resource management and (6) human settlement and security including operations on Cross Cutting issues with an important framework. These are:

  • Integrate climate change adaptation issues with national development policies and plans at all levels;
  • Present alternative guidelines and measures for climate change adaptation by sector and cross cutting issues related to the national context;
  • Enabling related agencies to use as a framework integration into policies, plans, and projects and efficiently work with relevant sectors, and to communicate to local level from ecosystem level, water basin, region, province, city, community to individual level.
Figure 6-1 Conceptual Framework in the Development of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP)

In the process of risk and vulnerability assessment by sectors that rely on formulation of the National Adaptation Plan process, the IPCC’s SRES scenario  is used in the A1B scenario to analyse the trend of climate change. This is in order to be used as risk management and measures in guidelines to adjust to climate change in each sector and be open to opinions from all the relevant sectors. This can be done through Public Hearing processes and using mechanisms of the National Working Group on Integration of Adaptation Implementation, Subcommittee on Climate Change Policy and Planning Integration, and National Committee on Climate Change Policy to give recommendations and agree to the plan for further presentation to the Cabinet and UNFCCC as shown in Figure 1-2.

Figure 6-2 National Adaptation Plan (NAP)’s Preparation Process
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