United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

3.1

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

ผลการประเมินสถานการณ์ด้านการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศของ IPCC ได้ก่อให้เกิดความร่วมมือระดับโลกขึ้น ภายใต้กรอบอนุสัญญาสหประชาชาติว่าด้วยการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ เพื่อเป็นเวทีในการสร้างความร่วมมือจากนานาชาติ

3.2

Paris Agreement

ควบคุมการเพิ่มขึ้นของอุณหภูมิเฉลี่ยโลก เพิ่มขีดความสามารถในการปรับตัว ทำให้เกิดเงินทุนหมุนเวียนที่นำไปสู่การพัฒนาที่ปล่อยก๊าซเรือนกระจกต่ำและสร้างความสามารถในการฟื้นตัวจากการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ

3.3

Adaptation Negotiations under UNFCCC and Paris Agreement

การดำเนินงานที่สำคัญด้านการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศระดับสากลและประเทศไทย โดยมีการประเมินความเสี่ยง ความเปราะบาง แผนปฏิบัติการปรับตัวระดับชาติ และอื่น ๆ

3.4

Department plan and plans related to climate change adaptation operations

ข้อมูลนโยบายประเทศ แผนหน่วยงาน แผนงานที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการดำเนินงาน และสถาบันด้านการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Background and Objective

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: IPCC is an organization that supports scientific data on climate change, publishes climate change assessment reports to confirm the climate change as a result of greenhouse gas emissions into the Earth’s atmosphere and predicts possible threats from climate change such as the melting of icebergs and glaciers, rising sea levels in the oceans, severe formation of more frequent natural disasters, etc. The assessment results have created a global partnership “by establishing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: UNFCCC as a forum for international cooperation in solving climate change problems”. The Convention was certified in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and entered into force in 1994. After that, the first Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 1) was organized in 1995 in Berlin, Germany and a COP meeting is held every year. Thailand ratified the Convention on the 28th of December in 1994 and sends representatives to attend the COP every year.
Reference / Note: UNFCCC, United Nations 1992

Principles and Commitments

The UNFCCC has established obligations to Parties by using the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” by classifying countries into 3 groups: Annex 1 is a developed industrial country that has emitted a lot of greenhouse gases before, forming a group that requires concrete obligations to reduce greenhouse gases, for example, with a goal to reduce greenhouse gases and implement relevant measures. Annex 2 is a developed country according to Annex 1 but does not include economically transitioned countries (from socialist to capitalist) and is a group that needs financial support, technology development and transfer, and capacity building for developing countries to reduce greenhouse gases and adapt to the effects of climate change. Non-Annex 1 is a developing country which includes Thailand, and which has no obligation to set targets for greenhouse gas reductions but has an obligation to:

  1. Prepare and update the national greenhouse gas account, including disseminating the information to the Parties of the Convention;
  2. Develop a national plan for greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation to the effects of climate change;
  3. Promote the development and transfer of technology to reduce greenhouse gases by sector, including energy, transportation, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management;
  4. Support the conservation of greenhouse gas reservoirs, such as forests, biomass, and ecosystems both on land, coast and sea;
  5. Collaborate to cope and adapt to the effects of climate change;
  6. Consider climate change in policy formulation and economic and environmental plans;
  7. Promote relevant research and development;
  8. Promote the exchange of academic, socioeconomic and legal information related to the implementation of climate change mitigation measures.;
  9. Promote cooperation in education, training, and raising public awareness of climate change and;
  10. Prepare a national report covering greenhouse gas accounting data, situation and climate change operations of the country for dissemination to the Parties.

For countries in Annex 1 and Annex 2, in addition to the obligation to reduce greenhouse gases, financial support to developing countries should be provided in the formulation of national reports and any actions taken in response to the problem of climate change, providing financial assistance to countries affected by climate change that can adapt to that effect, support capacity building, including the promotion and dissemination of suitable technology for developing countries.

Reference / Note: UNFCCC, United Nations 1992

The Essence of Adaptation to Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has established the importance of “Adverse effects of climate change” which is defined as changes in the physical environment or biota resulting from climate change which have significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience or productivity of natural and managed ecosystems or on the operation of socio-economic systems or on human health and welfare. This requires adaptation to the adverse effects. Another part of the Convention describes adaptation to the effects of climate change as the implementation of countries to include:
  1. Development of a national plan for greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation to the effects of climate change and;
  2. Collaboration to cope and adapt to the effects of climate change.
Reference / Note: UNFCCC, United Nations 1992

Paris Agreement

Background and Objectives

The COP Parties anticipate the current greenhouse gas emissions and the future trends to continue to increase, and reducing greenhouse gases of developed countries is not enough to maintain the level of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Therefore, there are discussions about the cooperation and long-term participation of the global community in solving climate change problems collectively.

COP21, held on the 12th of December 2015 in Paris, approved the Paris Agreement (PA), which has the objectives of:

  1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and;
  2. Increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and fostering climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food production;
  3. Making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

The Paris Agreement came into force on November 4th, 2016. The first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA1) was held in 2016 in Marrakech, Morocco with Thailand ratified as a Contracting Party for the Paris Agreement on 16 September 2016 and sending delegates to attend the CMA meeting every year since.

Principles and Commitments

The Paris Agreement establishes obligations to Parties by adhering to the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities”, taking into account the capabilities of each party according to the situation of different countries. In addition, it emphasizes that climate change is an urgent threat that requires effective and progressive response to the problem based on the best scientific knowledge available and places the importance of the actions of agencies at all levels of government and relevant parties in accordance with the national laws of the Parties to solve climate change problems. It gives priority to developing countries that are vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including consideration of greenhouse gas emission reduction measures that may negatively affect the sustainable development of developing countries.

The ratification of the Paris Agreement will be binding on all parties, including Thailand, to take steps to address climate change as follows:

  1. Parties shall establish their operational goals to solve climate change problems proposed every 5 years with targets set by each country as appropriate, known as NDCs (Nationally Determined Contributions) and presenting monitoring and evaluation reports in order to achieve the goals transparently.
  2. Parties should try to change the pattern of development to low-emission development, create resistance and the ability to recover from the effects of climate change in line with sustainable development guidelines.
  3. Developed countries must assist developing countries in their operations to tackle climate change through financial support, technology development and transfer, and capacity building of developing countries in relevant operations and transparent monitoring and evaluation of the support.
  4. To have a global stock take every 5 years to monitor the performance and assess progress in solving climate change in all dimensions, both operations and support, in particular, assessing the level of achievement in controlling the average global temperature increase by the end of the century not to exceed 2 or 1.5°C.

Paris Agreement, United Nations 201

The Essence of Adaptation to Climate Change

The Paris Agreement describes the implementation and mechanism of climate change adaptation and the reducing the risk of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change. It sets a global goal on adaptation through enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, with a view to contributing to sustainable development and ensuring an adequate adaptation response in the context of the temperature goal. This Includes the importance of international adaptation support and cooperation, strengthening cooperation in improving adaptation operations, and recognizing the need and the relationship between adaptation and greenhouse gas reduction by adaptation operations which should be as follows:
  1. In accordance with national guidelines and should be integrated into policies, operations, economics, social and environmental policies and operations, through which the country must prepare a national adaptation plan and implement it at all level as appropriate.
  2. The adaptation communication shall be, as appropriate, submitted and recorded in a public registry maintained by the secretariat.
  3. Financial and technological support and capacity building should be provided continuously and increasing to enable developing countries to continue and improve their adaptation continuously.
  4. To review the situation and global operations of adaptation to achieve the agreement goal.
The Parties recognize the role of sustainable development in reducing the risk of loss and damage, with the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) for Loss and Damage associated with climate change impacts: WIM under the supervision and guidance of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, includes enhanced understanding, action and support, on a cooperative and facilitative basis with respect to loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change.
UNFCCC, United Nations 1992

Adaptation Negotiations under UNFCCC and Paris Agreement

Key operations

Climate Change Adaptation Operations at the international level and in Thailand

การประเมินความเสี่ยงและความเปราะบางภายใต้รายงานแห่งชาติ

ที่ประชุมรัฐภาคีฯ สมัยที่ 2 ได้กำหนดให้แต่ละประเทศรายงานข้อมูลผลกระทบ ข้อมูลการประเมินความเสี่ยงและความเปราะบางในรายงานแห่งชาติ (National Communication) ซึ่งเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นของการสังเกตการณ์ผลกระทบจากการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ โดยรายงานแห่งชาติดังกล่าวเป็นพันธกรณีที่ทุกภาคีจะต้องจัดส่งไปยังสำนักงานเลขาธิการฯ ทุก ๆ 4 ปี

Assessment of risks and vulnerabilities under national reports

COP 2 required each country to report the impact, risk assessment, and vulnerability data in the National Communication, which is the starting point for observing the effects of climate change. The National Communication is an obligation that all parties must submit to the Secretariat every 4 years.

National Adaptation Programme of Actions

COP 7 required developing countries, especially the Least Developing Countries (LDC) that are facing the effects of climate change, to have to create an LDC work program to address the needs and situations including the process of preparing and implementing national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) which provide a process to identify and communicate priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate adaptation needs. COP also established a Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) initially to support the preparation and implementation of NAPAs and also established a Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) and Adaptation Fund as a source of funds for climate change adaptation operations in developing countries. The decision of COP 7 is the starting point of the concrete implementation of climate change adaptation action under the UNFCCC.

อ้างอิงและข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมที่ https://unfccc.int/topics/resilience/workstreams/national-adaptation-programmes-of-action/introduction

Nairobi Work Programme on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change

COP 11 established the Nairobi Work Program on Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change (NWP) as “a mechanism to support climate change operations by focusing on the development and dissemination of knowledge” to improve their understanding and assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation, and to make informed decisions on practical adaptation actions and measures to respond to climate change in developing countries. The NWP has identified knowledge relating to the impacts and vulnerability of climate change that will be useful for the formulation of plans, measures, and adaptation activities consisting of 9 aspects, namely:
  1. Methods and tools;
  2. Data and observations;
  3. Climate modelling, scenarios and downscaling;
  4.  Climate related risks and extreme events;
  5. Socio-economic information;
  6. Adaptation planning and practices;
  7. Research;
  8. Technologies for adaptation and;
  9. Economic diversification.
(อ้างอิงและข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมที่ )

Bali Action Plan

COP13 established the Bali Action Plan, which is the starting point for long-term negotiations and agreements on global warming, consisting of 5 main points:
  1. Shared vision for long-term cooperative action;
  2. Enhanced national/international action on mitigation of climate change, including, discussion of greenhouse gas reduction obligations by developed countries and nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing countries;
  3. Enhanced action on adaptation;
  4. Enhanced action on technology development and transfer and;
  5. Enhanced action on the provision of financial resources and investment to support action on mitigation and adaptation. Therefore, the Bali Action Plan is an upgrade to climate change operations and adaptation by setting long-term operational goals together.
(Reference and additional information)

Cancun Adaptation Framework

COP16 decided to upgrade important climate change adaptation operations, including the Cancun Adaptation Framework that supports developing countries to establish a National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with the Adaptation Committee (AC) to promote the implementation of stronger action on adaptation by providing technical support and guidance to countries, strengthening knowledge-sharing and promoting synergy between a range of stakeholders. There is also the establishment of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and the Climate Technology Center and Network (CTCN) to provide financial and technology support to developing countries for implementing greenhouse gas reduction activities and adaptation to climate change. In addition, the Cancun Adaptation Framework has also been added to the NWP to serve as a source of information for the Parties to implement adaptation to climate change. (Reference and additional information)

Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage

COP13 established the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM), to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change, including extreme events and slow onset events in developing countries. In COP19, it was decided for WIM to perform the following duties:
  1. Enhancing knowledge and understanding of comprehensive risk management approaches to address loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, including slow onset impacts, through facilitation and promotion;
  2. Strengthening dialogue, coordination, coherence and synergies among relevant stakeholders and;
  3. Enhancing action and support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts, including extreme events and slow onset events.
(Reference and additional information)

Adaptation Communication

Article 7 of the Paris Agreement requires the Parties shall, as appropriate, engage in “Adaptation planning processes and the implementation of actions”, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties. Also, the Parties should submit and update periodically an Adaptation Communication to the secretariat, which may include its priorities, implementation and support needs, including plans and actions.

Report on Adaptation

The UNFCCC requires the Climate Change Adaptation Report in the Biennial Transparency Report (BTR) to enable countries to report progress in implementing Adaptation Communication as well as information on operations such as factors forecasts for impacts, tools used by countries to assess or operations related to climate change, etc., in order to better understand the situation that the country is facing, without creating any additional burden for developing country Parties.
25 Years of Adaptation under the UNFCCC, report by the Adaptation Committee, page 18

Technical Examination Process on Adaptation

The Paris Agreement requires review of the Climate Change Adaptation Report in the Biennial Transparency Report as part of promoting transparency in operations. The Technical Examination Process on Adaptation has the following duties:

  1. Facilitating the sharing of good practices, experiences and lessons learned from operations on climate change adaptation;
  2. Identifying actions that could significantly enhance the implementation of adaptation actions, including actions that could enhance economic diversification and have mitigation co-benefits
  3. Promoting cooperative action on adaptation and;
  4. Identifying opportunities to strengthen enabling environments and enhance the provision of support for adaptation in the context of specific policies, practices and actions.

25 Years of Adaptation under the UNFCCC, report by the Adaptation Committee, page 19

Adaptation Committee

คณะทำงานด้านการปรับตัว (Adaptation Committee)

COP16 established the Adaptation Committee (AC) to provide technical support, sharing of relevant information, knowledge, experience and good practices, promoting synergy and strengthening engagement with national, regional and international organizations, centers and networks. It provides information and recommendations, drawing on adaptation good practices, for consideration by the COP when providing guidance on means to incentivize the implementation of adaptation actions, including finance, technology and capacity-building, as well as considering information communicated by Parties on their monitoring and review of adaptation actions, support provided and received.
Reference and additional information https://unfccc.int/Adaptation-Committee

กลุ่มผู้เชี่ยวชาญสำหรับประเทศพัฒนาน้อยที่สุด(The LDC Expert Group)

ที่ประชุมรัฐภาคีฯ สมัยที่ 7 ได้จัดตั้งกลุ่มผู้เชี่ยวชาญสำหรับประเทศพัฒนาน้อยที่สุด (The LDC Expert Group: LEG) เพื่อให้แนวทางการดำเนินงานทางเทคนิคแก่ประทศพัฒนาน้อยที่สุด รวมถึงการให้คำปรึกษาแก่สำนักงานเลขาธิการกองทุนภูมิอากาศสีเขียวในการจัดทำแผนการสนับสนุนด้านการเงินสำหรับการดำเนินงาน NAPs และ NAPAs รวมถึงการดำเนินงานต่าง ๆ ภายใต้ LDC work programme LEG จะมีการจัดประชุมร่วมกันปีละ 2 ครั้ง เพื่อทบทวนความก้าวหน้าของแผนงานที่ได้กำหนดไว้ในหลายรูปแบบ อาทิ การให้คำแนะนำทางเทคนิคแก่ประเทศกำลังพัฒนา การจัดอบรมปฏิบัติการ NAP Expos การศึกษาแลกเปลี่ยนประสบการณ์ การติดตามประสิทธิภาพของการดำเนินงาน การประเมินช่องว่างและความต้องการของภาคีในการดำเนินงานด้านการปรับตัวต่อการเปลี่ยนแปลงสภาพภูมิอากาศ เป็นต้น

อ้างอิงและข้อมูลเพิ่มเติมที่ https://unfccc.int/LEG

The LDC Expert Group

COP7 established the LDC Expert Group: LEG to provide technical guidance and advice on accessing funding from the Green Climate Fund (GCF) for the process to formulate and implement NAPs, the preparation and implementation of the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) and the implementation of the LDC work programme. The LEG meets twice a year to develop and review progress on the implementation of its work programme, including technical guidance to the developing countries, training activities, workshops, NAP Expos, case studies, capturing and sharing of experiences, best practices and lessons learned, monitoring of progress, effectiveness and gaps, collaboration with other bodies, programmes and organizations, and promotion of coherence and synergy.
Reference and additional information https://unfccc.int/wim-excom

Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage

COP13 established the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (WIM) to support the work of developing countries, and later, COP23 set a workplan through coordination and collaboration with various stakeholders. The expert group is divided into 4 groups to support the work, formulate plans and organize activities on (1) slow onset events; (2) non-economic losses; (3) displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change and; (4) comprehensive risk management approaches. The Executive Committee will hold a meeting twice a year in a setting open to observers. Parties provide guidance to the Executive Committee once a year.
Reference and additional information https://unfccc.int/wim-excom

The Facilitative Working Group of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform

COP24 established the Facilitative Working Group of the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform (LCIPP) for knowledge, capacity for engagement, and climate change policies and actions. Collaboration with other bodies is done under and outside the Convention, as appropriate, to enhance the coherence of the actions of the Platform under the Convention. The UNFCCC secretariat supports and facilitates the work of the body. The LCIPP working group will hold a meeting twice per year and will propose an initial two-year workplan for the period 2020–2021 for implementing the functions of the Platform.
Reference and additional information https://unfccc.int/LCIPP-FWG)

Adaptation Finance

Adaptation Fund: AF

The Adaptation Fund (AF) was established in 2001 to enable developing countries to develop project proposals or plans for funding from AF to implement climate change adaptation programs. The Adaptation Fund is financed with a share of proceeds from the clean development mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. However, since the implementation of the project under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol has greatly reduced, it has resulted in the AF lacking operating income. The Parties are negotiating to determine the format of implementation the next phase of the AF, which requires it to be a financial support mechanism for adaptation operations under the Paris Agreement.
Reference and additional information at https://unfccc.int/Adaptation-Fund

Green Climate Fund: GCF

The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement on the allocation of funds. It supports projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing country Parties by supporting 50% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and 50% adaptation to the effects of climate change, with 50% of the adaptation support prioritized to the least developed and small island developing states, and another 50% supporting the developing countries which accounts for 25% of the total allocation.
Reference and additional information at https://unfccc.int/process/bodies/funds-and-financial-entities/green-climate-fund

Global Environmental Facility: GEF

The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) was established before the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 with the aim of helping to solve environmental problems. Since its inception, the company has donated $14.5 billion and raised $75.4 billion in nearly 4,000 projects. In addition, the Global Environmental Facility is also partnering with international institutions, civil society organizations and the private sector through 183 organizations to solve global environmental problems. The Global Environmental Facility acts as a financial mechanism for the UNFCCC. It specifies that the Global Environmental Facility will continue to be a financial mechanism for the implementation of the Paris Agreement by supporting the Parties in the preparation of national reports, the implementation of the Paris Agreement, financial support to technological mechanisms, supporting the Parties to operate in a transparent framework, supporting the proposal of national participation in greenhouse gas reduction and climate change adaptation, etc. The Secretariat shall prepare results report of the operations to the COP every year.
Reference and additional information https://unfccc.int/topics/climate-finance/funds-entities-bodies/global-environment-facility

Least Developed Countries Fund: LDCF

COP7 established a Least Developed Countries Fund to support national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs) of Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) by requiring the Global Environmental Facility to act as an operating entity of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention entrusted with the operation of the LDCF. It was requested to continue to enhance capacity development in the LDCs for the development of project proposals with a focus on identifying potential funding sources, both national and international, and enhancing long-term domestic institutional capacities.
Reference and additional information at https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/bodies/constituted-bodies/least-developed-countries-expert-group-leg/ldc-portal/least-developed-countries-ldc-fund

Special Climate Change Fund: SCCF

COP7 established the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), requiring the Global Environmental Facility to be the fund’s operating unit. This fund will support vulnerable developing countries against the effects of climate change through long-term adaptation measures, economic diversity – which includes technology transfer, and potential development in both greenhouse gas reduction and climate change adaptation.

Climate Change Operations in Thailand

Country policy, Department plan and plans related to climate change adaptation operations Introduction

Guidelines for the implementation of climate change in the country. If considering the policies and directions of national development, it can be seen that in the major policies and plans of the country, such as the 12th National Economic and Social Development Plan or the Environmental Quality Management Plan 2012 -2016 etc., there are concepts and directions that promote operations to address climate change problems. In formulating the policies and plans, climate change is one of the major risk factors for the country.


However, Thailand has established specific policies and plans/sector plans to drive climate change adaptation operations as follows:


Country policy, sectoral plans and plans related to climate change adaptation operations

  1. The National Master Plan on Climate Change (2015-2050) has established a framework for solving climate change problems that are appropriate for the Thai context, consisting of three main operations: (1) Climate Change Adaptation which focuses on increasing the capacity to adapt and create immunity to climate change ;(2) Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting growth using low carbon emissions: mitigation, which involves changing the infrastructure to low-carbon emissions, changing behavior in human activities, increasing carbon storage such as reforestation and; (3) Capacity building for climate change management, including data development, education, research and technology, development of mechanisms to support climate change operations, raising awareness and capacity building on climate change, and enhancing international cooperation against climate change.
  2. (draft) Climate Change Adaptation Plan for Public Health (2020-2030) consists of 4 strategies which are: Strategy 1 – Strengthening community capacity and people skills in health literacy, coping with health risks from climate change; Strategy 2 – Integrating capacity of all sectors to drive public health implementation and climate change; Strategy 3 – Strengthening public health preparedness in climate change nationally, driven on economic, social and security purposes and; Strategy 4 – Strengthening the national public health system dealing with climate change, by having relevant guidelines and measures, such as: i) developing knowledge and skills for communities to protect and take care of their own health from the effects of climate change; ii) strengthening the risk groups, including the elderly, children and young workers (farmers or workers that have to work outdoor) and underprivileged groups to address the health risks of climate change; iii) the development of diagnostic guidelines, iv) treating diseases and health hazards to cover new impacts from climate change (such as heat and emerging diseases etc.), v) creating public health management models to reduce illnesses and deaths from the effects of changes in the climate; vi) improving or creating the structure of public health facilities to be ready for the situation that may arise from climate change and; vii) development of emergency response standards when health problems arise from climate change, etc.
  3. Agriculture Strategic Plan on Climate Change (2017-2021) has established strategies to increase adaptability to support climate change for farmers, farmers institutions, and related businesses, with relevant guidelines and measures, such as: i) promotion of participation in integration of water management in agriculture with other sectors; ii) increasing the efficiency of water retention and water distribution; iii) using climate risk maps throughout the agricultural and food chain for planning; iv) study of models, promotion; v) development of climate risk insurance systems for appropriate agricultural products; vi) promotion of sustainable agriculture; vii) development of integrated indices showing agricultural immunity levels in climate change and; viii) transmission using high precision farming technology combined with local wisdom in high-risk areas etc.
  4. Technology Needs Assessments Project in Thailand operated by the Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council (STI), with support from the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), to prepare a report of Thailand Technology Need Assessment (TNA) for greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation to climate change with the objectives: (1) to identify, assess, and prioritize technological needs for GHG mitigation; (2) to assess the relationship between social issues and policies and; (3) to analyze the benefit, cost, and impact of choosing to implement a particular strategy and plan.
    Technology Needs for Adaptation in Thailand consists of agricultural and water resources technology, and modeling of dissemination of obstacles, including general problems that affect development of technology.
    Technology Needs for Mitigation in Thailand consists of energy technologies including Smart Grid, High Combustion Technology, Waste Energy Production, Second- and Third-generation biofuels and Carbon Capture and Storage: CCS, in terms of transferring obstacles including general problems that affect development of technology.
  5. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is set up by the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, in order to enable relevant sectors to be used as a framework and guideline for integrating adaptation issues to climate change impacts in their sectors’ plans, strategies and area appropriately, and to be used as a framework for budget allocation, to be the foundation and development of guidelines for immunization and readiness to adapt to climate change impacts for all sectors, as well as creating participation in driving integration of adaptive approaches and measures to support climate change in all sectors and levels, and to raise awareness of the importance of problems, to create a mutual understanding between relevant organizations both business and civil society, to drive adaptation to climate change to integrate and not to overlap operations. (Link to NAP Section
  6. Thailand Adaptation Communication to the UNFCCC

    The Paris Agreement establishes an obligation for the country to submit a Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) every 5 years, consisting of greenhouse gas reduction goals, Adaptation Communication, Financial support goals, capacity building and technology.

    Thailand submitted its 1st Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on the 1st of October 2015, with the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 to 25 percent by 2030 in the field of energy, transportation, waste and industrial processes, together with the proposal of participation in greenhouse gas reduction (the same document). Thailand’s INDC has identified adaptation implementation which is the top priority for Thailand, and includes:

    • Promote and strengthen Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) practices to achieve water security, effective water resource management to mitigate flood and drought;
    • Safeguard food security through the guidance of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy e.g. an application of the New Theory in agriculture and land management to promote appropriate resource allocation and economic diversification at the household level and sustainable management of community forests to promote food security at the community level, for instance;
    • Promote sustainable agriculture and Good Agricultural Practice (GAP);
    • Increase capacity to manage climate-related health impacts – including through development of health surveillance and early warning systems, systematic climate risk assessment and effective disease prevention and response measures to climate change related health consequences;
    • Increase national forest cover to 40% through local community participation, including in particular headwater and mangrove forests to enhance adaptive capacities of related ecosystem;
    • Safeguard biodiversity and restore ecological integrity in protected areas and important landscapes from the adverse impacts of climate change, with the emphasis on vulnerable ecosystems and red list species;
    • Develop participatory, integrated marine conservation and coastal rehabilitation plan to protect marine ecosystem and enhance climate proofing infrastructure to strengthen coastal protection against erosion;
    • Promote nature-based and sustainable tourism while enhancing better understanding on risk and vulnerability of the tourism sector, especially in hotspot areas;
    • Strengthen disaster risk reduction and reduce the population’s vulnerability to climate risk and extreme weather events through enhanced awareness, coordination and adaptive capacity of local communities, especially in the disaster risk-prone areas;
    • Strengthen climate modeling capacity whilst promoting collaboration among relevant agencies;
    • Establish effective early warning systems and enhance the adaptive capacity of national agencies through multi-hazard risk assessment, systematic observations, integrative research and development of databases, models and technology and;
    • Build regional climate resilience by serving as a knowledge hub to foster regional cooperation and exchange experiences on adaptation.

Thailand Climate Change Institute

The bureaucratic reform in 2002 assigned the Climate Change Action and Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, having commenced operations since 2004 onwards. At present, Thailand has a legal operational structure to be a national mechanism as shown in Figure 2, consisting of:
The structure of climate change action in Thailand
Source: Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP))

Regulations of the Office of the Prime Minister on Climate Change Action – 2007 and as amended requires:
“National Committee on Climate Change Policy” which has the Prime Minister or the Deputy Prime Minister assigned as chairman and the Minister of Natural Resources and Environment and the Minister of Foreign Affairs as vice Chairman. The Committee is responsible for national climate change policy and strategy, determination of national positions for the international negotiations under the UNFCCC and any relevant international agreements, suggesting amendments to laws that are necessary or beneficial to the implementation of obligations, principles and objectives of the Convention and the Protocol in accordance with the economic, social and national interests, including the supervision of the government agencies or public organizations to be in accordance with the specified policies and measures to strengthen cooperation and coordination between government agencies, state enterprises, and private sector in matters relating to climate change operations, with the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment as secretary of the committee.

 

Under the National Committee on Climate Change Policy, there are departments and sub-committees overseeing as follows:

  1. Climate Change Management and Coordination Division serves as the National Focal Point of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and establish policies / plans / measures / tools / mechanisms and negotiations under the framework including the preparation of the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory to support climate change operations in Thailand both Adaptation and Mitigation, and operates as the Secretary of the National Committee on Climate Change Policy.
  2. Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (Public Organization) is an organization operating as the Designated National Authorization (DNA) and responsible for considering the project in accordance with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and operating the greenhouse gas management of the country with unity and flexibility in its operations as well as develop capability and competitiveness of the private and related sectors, and being a center for coordination on greenhouse gas management between government, private sector and international organizations, acting as a joint secretary of the National Committee on Climate Change Policy.
  3. Subcommittee on Climate Change Policy and Planning Integration is responsible for suggesting and providing opinions on the formulation and integration of policies, strategies, and plans relevant to solve climate change problems, including greenhouse gas reduction, adaptation, and other related areas, suggest mechanisms and measures, drive integrated budget allocations for implementing work plans related to problem resolution, propose guidelines for enhancing cooperation between government agencies, private sectors, civil society, and related sectors, as well as follow up and evaluate implementation of climate change policies, strategies, and plans, as well as making recommendations and comments on preparation of national report.
  4. Subcommittee on Climate Change Knowledge and Database is responsible for providing recommendations and supporting information on preparation and development of greenhouse gas accounting of the country to be a database for policy decisions, national report and preparation of reports for other information related to greenhouse gas accounts including giving recommendations on development of standard structure and the country’s greenhouse gas accounting system.
  5. Subcommittee on Climate Change Negotiation and International Cooperation is responsible for providing suggestions on the Thai position in negotiations including policy presentation, situation report, national report, academic comments and other opinions of the country under the international framework of the agreement on climate change including other international cooperation frameworks related to climate change and provide recommendations for preparation and development of knowledge and information on negotiations under the international framework of agreements on climate change including other relevant international cooperation frameworks as well as giving suggestions to the composition of Thai representatives in negotiations under the international framework of agreements on climate change.
  6. Subcommittee on Public Relations and Empowerment of Climate CooperationResponsible for promoting and supporting activities under the Action for Climate Empowerment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate on education, training, access to Public Information, raising awareness, participation of all sectors in climate change activities and supporting international cooperation linked to the Sustainable Development Goals.
  7. Working Group on Integration of Climate Change Adaptation in Thailand Climate Change Adaptation Action has appointed the “Working Group on Integration of Climate Change Adaptation in Thailand” under the subcommittee on Climate Change Policy and Planning Integration with authority as follows:
    1. Provide opinions, recommendations and support for development of national adaptation plans, including research and policy making, strategies, and maps, in line with the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) as well as relevant mechanical tools;
    2. Support integration of NAP into sector plans;
    3. Drive the implementation of NAP and related policies, strategies and maps into action;
    4. Monitor and evaluate the implementation of National Adaptation Plan and related policies, strategies, and plans;
    5. Inviting representatives from various departments and the private sector to provide information and opinions to the working group and;
    6. Perform other duties necessary to support the operations as assigned appropriately.
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