The UNFCCC has established obligations to Parties by using the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” by classifying countries into 3 groups: Annex 1 is a developed industrial country that has emitted a lot of greenhouse gases before, forming a group that requires concrete obligations to reduce greenhouse gases, for example, with a goal to reduce greenhouse gases and implement relevant measures. Annex 2 is a developed country according to Annex 1 but does not include economically transitioned countries (from socialist to capitalist) and is a group that needs financial support, technology development and transfer, and capacity building for developing countries to reduce greenhouse gases and adapt to the effects of climate change. Non-Annex 1 is a developing country which includes Thailand, and which has no obligation to set targets for greenhouse gas reductions but has an obligation to:
- Prepare and update the national greenhouse gas account, including disseminating the information to the Parties of the Convention;
- Develop a national plan for greenhouse gas reduction and adaptation to the effects of climate change;
- Promote the development and transfer of technology to reduce greenhouse gases by sector, including energy, transportation, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management;
- Support the conservation of greenhouse gas reservoirs, such as forests, biomass, and ecosystems both on land, coast and sea;
- Collaborate to cope and adapt to the effects of climate change;
- Consider climate change in policy formulation and economic and environmental plans;
- Promote relevant research and development;
- Promote the exchange of academic, socioeconomic and legal information related to the implementation of climate change mitigation measures.;
- Promote cooperation in education, training, and raising public awareness of climate change and;
- Prepare a national report covering greenhouse gas accounting data, situation and climate change operations of the country for dissemination to the Parties.
For countries in Annex 1 and Annex 2, in addition to the obligation to reduce greenhouse gases, financial support to developing countries should be provided in the formulation of national reports and any actions taken in response to the problem of climate change, providing financial assistance to countries affected by climate change that can adapt to that effect, support capacity building, including the promotion and dissemination of suitable technology for developing countries.
Reference / Note: UNFCCC, United Nations 1992